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The aerobic mold which yielded cephalosporin C was found in the sea near a sewage outfall nearby Cagliari harbour, Sardinia, by the Italian pharmacologist Giuseppe Brotzu in July 1945. Since their discovery and subsequent commercialization in 1964, the cephalosporins today are broad-spectrum ß-lactam antibiotics used for the treatment of a number of bacterial conditions including septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis. The pharmacology of cephalosporins is similar to that of the penicillin class of compounds. This application brief describes use of a Quasar biphenyl column in the analysis of several cephalosporins, a mixture of first and second generation ß-lactam antibiotics.
Indoxyl sulfate is one of the most extensively studied solutes that accumulates in the plasma when the kidneys fail. Originally called "indican", it was first isolated by Obermayer and Popper in 1911. High concentrations of indoxyl sulfate in blood plasma are known to be associated with the development and progression of a number of pathological conditions including chronic kidney disease and vascular disease. The scientific literature documents the use of older generation C18 columns, using type A silicas. This application brief will illustrate the application of a new generation C18 column, based on type B silica, for the analysis of indoxyl sulfate, Figure 1, as part of a research study to measure the total levels in a simulated blood serum environment.