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As the demand for solar power continues to grow, there needs to be a clear focus on different key issues in the life cycle of a solar cell. These issues are: efficiency, durability and cost. Coupling PerkinElmer’s application knowledge and experience together with our product portfolio, we can help manufacturers overcome these obstacles. At PerkinElmer, we’re taking action to ensure the quality of our environment.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the proximate analysis of two standard samples using the STA and show that the performance is easily able to allow this moderate cost, small profile and sturdy instrument to be used for this type of routine analysis.
Biodiesel is seldom used neat (B100), typically being blended with fossil diesel at ratios from 5% v/v (B5) to 30% v/v (B30). Verifying the FAME content of diesel-fuel blends is an important aspect of quality control and auditing of blending and distribution operations. Because FAME has a strong infrared absorption at 1745 cm-1 due to the ester carbonyl group, infrared spectroscopy is an excellent technique for this analysis, and there are EN and ASTM® standard test methods describing the procedure
Where ΔCp and ΔCp pure are the changes in specific heat at the glass transition temperature, Tg, for the composite, and for the unfilled polymer, respectively. This work suggests an alternative method for determining Cp that takes advantage of fast heating and cooling rates to obtain quantitative Cp in the upper temperature region without having to dwell in that high temperature region to establish an upper isothermal.
Biodiesel fuels are often blended compositions of diesel fuel and esterified soybean oils, rapeseed oils, or other potential vegetable oils as well as fats. The physical and combustion properties of these biofuels have allowed them to achieve similar performance to diesel fuel. However, there are several characteristics that are of concern. These differences, especially the cetane reduction, require that adequate control of the biofuel concentration be implemented.
IR spectroscopy is an ideal method for quantifying benzene at the concentration levels required, and there are several standard methods for this measurement, all of which utilize the distinctive C–H out-of-plane deformation band at around 673 cm-1. While this band is characteristic of benzene, toluene and xylenes have some weak absorption at this frequency that can interfere with the results if high concentrations are present.
This study shows that DSC can be used to study the curing degree of the EVA resin by measuring the residual curing enthalpy. The data show that the residual curing enthalpy can be correlated to the curing time in a linear way. The DSC test is quick and easy.
In the “Early Drug Discovery Phase” of pharmaceutical development when there is a minimum amount of synthesized drug candidate, quick thermal analysis using a small amount of sample is the norm. The sample amount could be less than 3 mg. Because of the rush to identify possible drug candidates, analytical answers must be given within the day. The STA 6000 with its sensitivity of 0.1 µg allows minimum sample material to obtain reproducible results in half the time.
Many pharmaceutical materials exhibit polymorphism, which means that, depending upon the given processing conditions, the crystalline form may exist in two or more states. The crystalline states or forms exhibit different levels of thermodynamic stabilities and an unstable form can melt at a temperature significantly less than the melting point of the thermodynamically stable form. Depending upon the conditions used to generate the crystalline form(s), the drug may exhibit one or more unstable, polymorphic crystalline states.
The intensifying global emphasis on developing sustainable fuel supplies has led to increasing use of fuels derived from biological sources. In this note we show that the Spectrum Two™ FT-IR spectrometer (Figure 1) can be used to develop a quantitative method with sufficient sensitivity to meet the required detection limits for methanol, water, C3–C5 alcohols and gasoline denaturant, while requiring less than two minutes of analysis time per sample.
A gas chromatographic analysis of the extract can provide even greater sensitivity and more detailed compositional information, but further increases the time required for the analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) can provide detailed information about the amount and nature of the pollution, while requiring no sample preparation at all. This application note illustrates the kind of data that can be obtained with a modern TG-IR system.
Heat capacity measurement has been performed in order to detect a possible second Tg on nanocomposites of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with silicon oxide nanoparticles of different shape. StepScan™ DSC was used for determination of precise heat capacity and HyperDSC® to prevent degradation and identify devitrification of the RAF at elevated temperatures.