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This paper explores the numerous challenges materials scientists and engineers face, from the time it takes to bring new materials to market to the difficulties delivering suitable formulations and testing against specified criteria, and how those can be resolved.
Fundamental processes in living cells, such as apoptosis and signal transduction are controlled by proteins, often acting in concert with other protein partners through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Inappropriate protein-protein recognition can fundamentally contribute to many diseases, including cancer. Therefore, inhibiting protein-protein interactions represents an emerging area in drug design.
Analyzing transport of biliary metabolites is essential to predict pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity during drug development. A functional impairment of hepatobilary transporters, such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2), is strongly associated with an increased risk of cholestatic liver injury. Here, we describe a 3D high-content screening assay to study hepatobiliary transporter function in InSphero human liver microtissues. Confocal imaging and automated image analysis were used to quantify BSEP and MRP-2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates into bile canaliculi.