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Infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy are fast, easy-to-use techniques with a history of being used for food applications such as those for measuring protein, moisture, and fat content. Food fraud and adulteration has become of particular concern to the industry over the past few years following reports of incidents in the media, with herbs and spices identified as one of the key problem areas.
This paper explores the numerous challenges materials scientists and engineers face, from the time it takes to bring new materials to market to the difficulties delivering suitable formulations and testing against specified criteria, and how those can be resolved.
Precise and accurate measurements at the regulated levels are an important factor for assuring safe drinking water. U.S. EPA Method 200.91 is the method cited by EPA, Health Canada, and the WHO for the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). In evaluating a GFAAS system for determination of these elements, it must provide good sensitivity, low noise, limited drift, and accuracy in matrices with high salt content (hard water) that might be found in drinking waters. In this work, the PinAAcle™ 900T, with a unique optical system, is evaluated for the use of EPA Method 200.9 for As, Cd, Pb, Se, and Tl in drinking waters.
Toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), are entering the food chain through environmental contamination. Rice, as the most widely consumed cereal grain in Asia, can quickly pick up Pb and Cd from soil, thereby seriously endangering human health through diet. These toxic element levels need to be carefully monitored. Maximum levels of Pb and Cd are strictly regulated in Asian countries, especially in China; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a simple, reliable method for trace levels of Pb and Cd in rice. The allowable maximum levels of Pb and Cd in grains in EU and China are required to be below 0.2 mg/kg (Commission Regulation EC 1881/2006 and Chinese GB 2715-2016 Hygienic Standard). Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) is the officially recommended technique for detection of trace elements in various food stuffs (GB/T 5009.15-2017, GB/T 5009. 12-2017 and EN 14083:2003). Food samples are usually pretreated before GFAAS analysis using various methods: microwave digestion, hot block digestion, dry ashing, and hot plate digestion. These conventional digestion procedures are usually complicated and time-consuming (2-4 hours or longer). Plus, they require large quantities of corrosive and oxidizing reagents, increasing the chance for contamination which could lead to inaccurate results. However, fast digestion can effectively speed up the sample preparation procedure while reducing the use of corrosive reagents and the chance for contamination.
In this work, we demonstrate that PerkinElmer's NexION® 2000 ICP-MS, with its unique RF generator and ion optics, coupled with the Syngistix™ Nano Application Software Module, can be used to accurately measure and characterize NP sizes of 10 nm and smaller, both alone and in a mixture of NPs of various sizes.
Optical-based in vivo imaging of vascular changes and vascular leak is an emerging modality for studying altered physiology in a variety of different cancers and inflammatory states. A number of fluorescent imaging probes that circulate with the blood, but have no target selectivity, have been used to detect tumor leakiness as an indication of abnormal tumor vasculature. Inflammation is also characterized by distinct vascular changes, including vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. This process is essential for facilitating access for appropriate cells, cytokines, and other factors to tissue sites in need of healing or protection from infection. This application note investigates the use of three fluorescent imaging probes, to detect and monitor vascular leak and inflammation in preclinical mouse breast cancer models.
Epifluorescence (2D) imaging of superficially implanted mouse tumor xenograft models offers a fast and simple method for assessing tumor progression or response to therapy. This approach for tumor assessment requires the use of near infrared (NIR) imaging agents specific for different aspects of tumor biology, and this Application Note highlights the ease and utility of multiplex NIR fluorescence imaging to characterize the complex biology within tumors growing in a living mouse.
The promise of high-content screening is the acceleration of discovery by extracting as much relevant information as possible from cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of high-content screens analyze only a small number of image-based properties. As a result, valuable information from precious cells and disease models is not utilized. As nearly all screening approaches require a nuclear counterstain such as Hoechst to facilitate segmentation, phenotypic profiling of the nuclei can offer new and additional perspectives on assays at no extra cost.
Herbal lifestyle products are widely used as alternatives to medicines around the world, with as many as 80% of people using them as a primary source of healthcare in developing countries. These treatments are commonly regarded by scientific papers, and on some occasions the media, as being inferior to orthodox treatment. This is due to the variation between herbal formulations which will not be present in so called ‘single-chemical’ drugs. The reasons for the aforementioned variation involve several factors including storage, environmental conditions, handling and unintentional or intentional contamination (adulteration).
In this work, samples were digested with aqua regia using reflux conditions according to DIN method 38414. After proper dilution of the digested sample solution, Hg was measured interference-free using SnCl2 as the reductant. The recoveries of spiked mercury in sewage sludge samples ranged from 96 to 100%. The method was checked by the analysis of standard reference materials. All results were in agreement with certified values. The RSD for three replicates was approximately 2% at 10 µg/L Hg level.
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major reason for late stage termination of drug discovery research projects, highlighting the importance of early integration of liver safety assessment in the drug development process. A technical approach for in vivo toxicology determination was developed using Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug, to induce acute hepatocellular liver injury.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been of significant interest over the last two decades as they offer attractive benefits for drug delivery to overcome limitations in conventional chemotherapy. Nanoparticles can be engineered to carry both drugs and imaging probes to simultaneously detect and treat cancer. They may also be designed to specifically target diseased tissues and cells in the body. A number of nanoparticlebased cancer therapeutics have been approved for clinical use and/or are currently under development.
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