1-12 of 31 Business Insights
This paper explores the numerous challenges materials scientists and engineers face, from the time it takes to bring new materials to market to the difficulties delivering suitable formulations and testing against specified criteria, and how those can be resolved.
X-ray CT imaging is commonly used for skeletal imaging as bones are densely mineralized tissues with excellent x-ray attenuation properties. In contrast, soft, less dense tissues often prove to be challenging to image due to their lack of sufficient tissue density. Soft tissues such as muscle, blood vessels and internal organs share similar x-ray attenuation characteristics and are not distinguishable under typical CT settings. In order to introduce density that would improve soft tissue contrast, several contrast agents have been developed for use in clinical and preclinical settings. This application note outlines the use of iodine and nanoparticle-based contrast agents for imaging soft tissues and vasculature in various organs using the Quantum GX to gain further insights into disease and therapeutic response.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has announced that its new standards for elemental impurities in drug products will be implemented on January 1, 2018. General Chapters <232> and <2232> specify the list of elements and their permissible daily exposure (PDE) limits based on the route of administration.
This work demonstrates a robust method using SP-ICP-MS technology to detect CeO2 NPs which were extracted from soil samples with tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP). Over the past few decades, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have been increasingly used in many commercial products. As a result, more and more ENPs have been released into the environment, which raises concerns over their fate, toxicity and transport therein.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and affects a considerable portion of the elderly population. In the U.S., it is estimated that more than 630 million people worldwide have this chronic condition, generally in the knees. OA occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones within the joints gradually deteriorates, causing synovitis and joint deformation.
The goal of OA research is to identify new therapeutic strategies that could prevent, reduce, halt progression, or repair the existing damage to the joint. Non-invasive in vivo imaging such as microCT is the standard modality for bone research due to its ability to obtain high-resolution images at an x-ray dose low enough as not to harm the animal. This makes microCT ideal for monitoring disease progression and response to treatments in the same animal over time. However, microCT data visualization and analysis can be cumbersome and time consuming. In this application note, we compared standard microCT software and advanced bone software to investigate bone erosion in an OA rat model.
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major reason for late stage termination of drug discovery research projects, highlighting the importance of early integration of liver safety assessment in the drug development process. A technical approach for in vivo toxicology determination was developed using Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug, to induce acute hepatocellular liver injury.
With the potential to treat a wide range of disease, from organ damage to congenital defects, stem cell research and tissue engineering form the underlying basis of regenerative medicine. Significant advances in the science of skin regeneration, for example, have now made it possible to develop and grow artificial skin grafts in a lab for treatment of burn victims. Other therapeutic applications include the use of stem cells to treat and repair central nervous system diseases such as ischemia and cerebral palsy, cardiovascular diseases, as well as autoimmune diseases including type I diabetes.
Epifluorescence (2D) imaging of superficially implanted mouse tumor xenograft models offers a fast and simple method for assessing tumor progression or response to therapy. This approach for tumor assessment requires the use of near infrared (NIR) imaging agents specific for different aspects of tumor biology, and this Application Note highlights the ease and utility of multiplex NIR fluorescence imaging to characterize the complex biology within tumors growing in a living mouse.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been of significant interest over the last two decades as they offer attractive benefits for drug delivery to overcome limitations in conventional chemotherapy. 3 Nanoparticles can be engineered to carry both drugs and imaging probes to simultaneously detect and treat cancer. They may also be designed to specifically target diseased tissues and cells in the body. A number of nanoparticlebased cancer therapeutics have been approved for clinical use and/or are currently under development.
Optical-based in vivo imaging of vascular changes and vascular leak is an emerging modality for studying altered physiology in a variety of different cancers and inflammatory states. A number of fluorescent imaging probes that circulate with the blood, but have no target selectivity, have been used to detect tumor leakiness as an indication of abnormal tumor vasculature. Inflammation is also characterized by distinct vascular changes, including vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. This process is essential for facilitating access for appropriate cells, cytokines, and other factors to tissue sites in need of healing or protection from infection. This application note investigates the use of three fluorescent imaging probes, to detect and monitor vascular leak and inflammation in preclinical mouse breast cancer models.
Measuring the amount of metals in CNTs presents a challenge. High levels can be measured directly in the solid by several techniques, including XRF and TEM, while low-level analysis requires complete digestion of the sample prior to analysis by ICP-OES or ICP-MS.
Analyzing transport of biliary metabolites is essential to predict pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity during drug development. A functional impairment of hepatobilary transporters, such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2), is strongly associated with an increased risk of cholestatic liver injury. Here, we describe a 3D high-content screening assay to study hepatobiliary transporter function in InSphero human liver microtissues. Confocal imaging and automated image analysis were used to quantify BSEP and MRP-2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates into bile canaliculi.
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